Lorde apologises for ‘extremely poorly chosen’ Instagram caption

Lorde has apologised to fans after Instagramming a photo of a bathtub captioned with a Whitney Houston lyric.

Lorde posted a photo of a bathtub on her Instagram alongside the words “and iiiii will always love you”—a lyric from “I Will Always Love You.” Whitney Houston’s version of the song—penned by Dolly Parton in 1973—became a huge hit after it featured on the soundtrack of The Bodyguard in 1992. 

But, the coupling of the image and its caption prompted fans to criticise Lorde for being “insensitive.” Whitney Houston was found dead in a bathtub in 2012. The autopsy report revealed her death was caused by drowning and “effects ofatherosclerotic heart disease and cocaine use.”

Lorde’s post has since been deleted, but not before Whitney fans tweeted screenshots of the post, calling the choice of caption “disgusting.” 

Others rushed to Lorde’s defence, stating that the caption was a “very bad coincidence.” 

Lorde posted a prompt apology on her Instagram Story. “Extremely extremely poorly chosen quote,” wrote Lorde. “I’m so sorry for offending anyone—I hadn’t even put this together, I was just excited to take a bath.”

Image: instagram /@lordemusic

“I’m an idiot. Love Whitney forever and ever. Sorry again,” she added. 

Read more: https://mashable.com/2018/04/06/lorde-whitney-houston-apology/

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Hyperkalemia : High Blood Potassium means an abnormally elevated level of Potassium in the Blood

Hyperkalemia
(High Blood Potassium)

Medical Author:
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
Medical Editor:
William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
What is hyperkalemia?
How does hyperkalemia affect the body?
What are the symptoms of hyperkalemia?
What causes hyperkalemia?
Kidney dysfunction
Diseases of the adrenal gland
Potassium shifts
Medications
How is hyperkalemia diagnosed?
How is hyperkalemia treated?
Related hyperkalemia (high sodium blood levels) article: Hyperkalemia – on eMedicineHealth
Patient Comments: Hyperkalemia – How Was Diagnosis Established
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What is hyperkalemia?

Hyperkalemia is common; it is diagnosed in up to 8% of hospitalized patients in the U.S. Fortunately, most patients have mild hyperkalemia (which is usually well tolerated). However, any condition causing even mild hyperkalemia should be treated to prevent progression into more severe hyperkalemia. Extremely high levels of potassium in the blood (severe hyperkalemia) can lead to cardiac arrest and death. When not recognized and treated properly, severe hyperkalemia results in a mortality rate of about 67%.

Technically, hyperkalemia means an abnormally elevated level of potassium in the blood. The normal potassium level in the blood is 3.5-5.0 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Potassium levels between 5.1 mEq/L to 6.0 mEq/L reflect mild hyperkalemia. Potassium levels of 6.1 mEq/L to 7.0 mEq/L are moderate hyperkalemia, and levels above 7 mEq/L are severe hyperkalemia.

How does hyperkalemia affect the body?

Potassium is critical for the normal functioning of the muscles, heart, and nerves. It plays an important role in controlling activity of smooth muscle (such as the muscle found in the digestive tract) and skeletal muscle (muscles of the extremities and torso), as well as the muscles of the heart. It is also important for normal transmission of electrical signals throughout the nervous system within the body.

Normal blood levels of potassium are critical for maintaining normal heart electrical rhythm. Both low blood potassium levels (hypokalemia) and high blood potassium levels (hyperkalemia) can lead to abnormal heart rhythms.

The most important clinical effect of hyperkalemia is related to electrical rhythm of the heart. While mild hyperkalemia probably has a limited effect on the heart, moderate hyperkalemia can produce EKG changes (EKG is an electrical reading of the heart muscles), and severe hyperkalemia can cause suppression of electrical activity of the heart and can cause the heart to stop beating.

Another important effect of hyperkalemia is interference with functioning of the skeletal muscles. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a rare inherited disorder in which patients can develop sudden onset of hyperkalemia which in turn causes muscle paralysis. The reason for the muscle paralysis is not clearly understood, but it is probably due to hyperkalemia suppressing the electrical activity of the muscle.

What are the symptoms of hyperkalemia?

Hyperkalemia can be asymptomatic, meaning that it causes no symptoms. Sometimes, patients with hyperkalemia report vague symptoms including:

nausea,
fatigue,
muscle weakness, or
tingling sensations.
More serious symptoms of hyperkalemia include slow heartbeat and weak pulse. Severe hyperkalemia can result in fatal cardiac standstill (heart stoppage). Generally, a slowly rising potassium level (such as with chronic kidney failure) is better tolerated than an abrupt rise in potassium levels. Unless the rise in potassium has been very rapid, symptoms of hyperkalemia are usually not apparent until potassium levels are very high (typically 7.0 mEq/l or higher).

Symptoms may also be present that reflect the underlying medical conditions that are causing the hyperkalemia.

What causes hyperkalemia?

The major causes of hyperkalemia are kidney dysfunction, diseases of the adrenal gland, potassium sifting out of cells into the blood circulation, and medications.

Kidney dysfunction

Potassium is normally excreted by the kidneys, so disorders that decrease the function of the kidneys can result in hyperkalemia. These include:

acute and chronic renal failure,
glomerulonephritis,
lupus nephritis,
transplant rejection, and
obstructive diseases of the urinary tract, such as urolithiasis (stones in the urinary tract).
Furthermore, patients with kidney dysfunctions are especially sensitive to medications that can increase blood potassium levels. For example, patients with kidney dysfunctions can develop worsening hyperkalemia when given salt substitutes that contain potassium, when given potassium supplements (either orally or intravenously), or medications that can increase blood potassium levels. Examples of medications that can increase blood potassium levels include:

ACE inhibitors,
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs), and
potassium-sparing diuretics