Trumps Physical Told Us Two Things: Hes Obese and Can Recognize a Rhino

On Tuesday afternoon, Physician to the President Ronny Jackson discussed how President Trumps physical examination went on Friday. For several minutes, Jackson ticked off statistics.

Vitals as follows, he began, and in one breath, spewed out numbers. Age, 71 years, 7 months at the time of the exam. Height 75 inches. Weight 239 pounds. Resting heart rate 68. Blood pressure 122/74. Pulse oximetry, 99 percent on room air. Temperature was 98.4. Eyes, presidents uncorrected visual acuity is 20/30 bilaterally with corrected visual acuity of 20/20 bilaterally.

After all the hullabaloo of the physical, Trumps numbers boil down to two facts. First, Trump is in crappy shape and could use a diet, or hes in danger of dying from heart disease or a stroke, whichever comes first. And second, as much as he might tout his stable genius, theres no clinical proof of it; only that he can pass a test whose questions involve identifying animals and sketching a clock. Trumps mental fitness remains fuzzy and unknown.

Jacksons appearance, which he importantly prefaced with the note that Trump had permitted him to release these numbers, showcased a medical briefing that told us some things, but also told us nothing at all.

Heres the one blaring thing we learned: With a height just over 6 feet 2 inches and clocking in at 239 pounds (three pounds more than last year when he was examined by his personal doctor, Harold Bornstein), Trump has officially entered the zone of obesity at 30.7, according to his BMI ratios.

Trumps cholesterol levels have also spiked. His cholesterol levels under Bornstein rang in at 169, but his cholesterol this year was 233, which experts would consider dangerous. Jackson said he had a sit-down with Trump about escalating the cholesterol-reducing drug with a low-dose Crestor and eating better to avoid clogging his arteries.

That Trumps specific health statistics makes him an obese individual despite having a height and weight comparable to a NFL player showcase the difference a little exercise (something else Jackson suggested for the president) make, as tweets illustrate.

Taken at Twitter-value, its a medical marvel: Look at what a difference muscle mass makes compared to fat! But the photos also make an excellent point about Trumps health: He is, after all, a very tall and broad man, so his weight will reflect that.

But the numbers that Jackson reported on behalf of Trump suggest that this is a man who has very little muscle mass and is essentially a walking glob. Trump is clinically obese. Hes not very different from his fellow American in this respect: 35 percent of Americans are obese, with another 34 percent considered overweight, according to the National Institute of Health. Trumps alleged favored diet of burgers and fries, coupled with a marked disdain for exercise, certainly dont help.

Does an obese president really matter, though? Trump can lift weights and run all he wants, but at the end of the day, the decisions he makes are going to be determined by his mental fitness.

Jacksons evaluation suggests that no matter his constant assurances throughout the briefing that Trump is in excellent health, the president has been chided to lose weight. Jackson has gone so far as to suggest Trump try to lose 10 to 15 pounds by the time his checkup next year, which comes out to about a pound a month. Its a doable goal, but one that Trump will have to actively engage in by eating more vegetables, cutting down on the fat content of his meals, and doing a little more physical activity beyond shuffling around and golfing at Mar-a-Lago.

Does an obese president really matter, though? Trump can lift weights and run all he wants, but at the end of the day, the decisions he makes are going to be determined by his mental fitness.

The weeks before the physical saw a call for the presidents mental health to be evaluated, despite his protests that such a test would be unnecessary; according to Jackson, Trump requested some sort of neurological examination. Jackson responded with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a 10-minute, 30-question test that measures cognitive ability, on which trump scored a perfect 30.

Importantlyand this is very importantthe test is not a neurological one. MoCA, as its referred to, does not measure mental faculties nor does it quantify the decision-making power of Trumps brain. Instead, MoCA is often used as a preliminary indicator of mental impairment for those with attention disorders, learning disabilities, and memory problems, often being administered after a patient suffers from a brain injury.

MoCA includes memory recall tests, drawing a clock and a 3D cube, simple addition and subtraction, and recognizing low-familiarity animals, such as rhinoceroses, among other tasks. Its a test that is simple and meant to measure Trumps ability to comprehend simple tasks, not whether he is psychiatrically healthy. A person can perform cognitive tasks well all day long, but that does not prove mental health and psychiatric wellness, despite the 30/30 score the president will surely tout in the months to come.

His overall health? No matter what Jackson says, its not great. Trump is reflective of the run-of-the-mill white man in America, and while that might win him elections, it still means hes in terrible health.

Read more: https://www.thedailybeast.com/trumps-physical-told-us-two-things-hes-obese-and-recognize-a-rhino

Poor diet is a factor in one in five deaths, global disease study reveals

Study compiling data from every country finds people are living longer but millions are eating wrong foods for their health

Poor diet is a factor in one in five deaths around the world, according to the most comprehensive study ever carried out on the subject.

Millions of people are eating the wrong sorts of food for good health. Eating a diet that is low in whole grains, fruit, nuts and seeds and fish oils and high in salt raises the risk of an early death, according to the huge and ongoing study Global Burden of Disease.

The study, based at the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, compiles data from every country in the world and makes informed estimates where there are gaps. Five papers on life expectancy and the causes and risk factors of death and ill health have been published by the Lancet medical journal.

It finds that people are living longer. Life expectancy in 2016 worldwide was 75.3 years for women and 69.8 for men. Japan has the highest life expectancy at 84 years and the Central African Republic has the lowest at just over 50. In the UK, life expectancy for a man born in 2016 is 79, and for a woman 82.9.

Diet is the second highest risk factor for early death after smoking. Other high risks are high blood glucose which can lead to diabetes, high blood pressure, high body mass index (BMI) which is a measure of obesity, and high total cholesterol. All of these can be related to eating the wrong foods, although there are also other causes.

causes of death graphic

This is really large, Dr Christopher Murray, IHMEs director, told the Guardian. It is amongst the really big problems in the world. It is a cluster that is getting worse. While obesity gets attention, he was not sure policymakers were as focused on the area of diet and health as they needed to be. That constellation is a really, really big challenge for health and health systems, he said.

The problem is often seen as the spread of western diets, taking over from traditional foods in the developing world. But it is not that simple, says Murray. Take fruit. It has lots of health benefits but only very wealthy people eat a lot of fruit, with some exceptions.

Sugary drinks are harmful to health but eating a lot of red meat, the study finds, is not as big a risk to health as failing to eat whole grains. We need to look really carefully at what are the healthy compounds in diets that provide protection, he said.

undernourishment graphic

Prof John Newton, director of health improvement at Public Health England, said the studies show how quickly diet and obesity-related disease is spreading around the world. I dont think people realise how quickly the focus is shifting towards non-communicable disease [such as cancer, heart disease and stroke] and diseases that come with development, in particular related to poor diet. The numbers are quite shocking in my view, he said.

The UK tracks childhood obesity through the school measurement programme and has brought in measures to try to tackle it. But no country in the world has been able to solve the problem and it is a concern that we really need to think about tackling globally, he said.

Today, 72% of deaths are from non-communicable diseases for which obesity and diet are among the risk factors, with ischaemic heart disease as the leading cause worldwide of early deaths, including in the UK. Lung cancer, stroke, lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder) and Alzheimers are the other main causes in the UK.

The success story is children under five. In 2016, for the first time in modern history, fewer than 5 million children under five died in one year a significant fall compared with 1990, when 11 million died. Increased education for women, less poverty, having fewer children, vaccinations, anti-malaria bed-nets, improved water and sanitation are among the changes in low-income countries that have brought the death rate down, thanks to development aid.

People are living longer but spending more years in ill health. Obesity is one of the major reasons. More than a billion people worldwide are living with mental health and substance misuse disorders. Depression features in the top 10 causes of ill health in all but four countries.

Our findings indicate people are living longer and, over the past decade, we identified substantial progress in driving down death rates from some of the worlds most pernicious diseases and conditions, such as under age-five mortality and malaria, said Murray Yet, despite this progress, we are facing a triad of trouble holding back many nations and communities obesity, conflict, and mental illness, including substance use disorders.

In the UK, the concern is particularly about the increase in ill-health that prevents people from working or having a fulfilling life, said Newton. A man in the UK born in 2016 can expect only 69 years in good health and a woman 71 years.

This is yet another reminder that while were living longer, much of that extra time is spent in ill-health. It underlines the importance of preventing the conditions that keep people out of work and put their long term health in jeopardy, like musculoskeletal problems, poor hearing and mental ill health. Our priority is to help people, including during the crucial early years of life and in middle age, to give them the best chance of a long and healthy later life, he said.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/sep/14/poor-diet-is-a-factor-in-one-in-five-deaths-global-disease-study-reveals

Why You Should Stop Sleeping Late On The Weekends

Weve got some bad news: Sleeping a few extra hourson the weekend may actually be bad for you. In effect, by spending a few additional hours in the land of dreams, you are giving yourself social jet lag, according to a new study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.This, they say, can lead to health problems in the long run.

Circadian rhythms, which are also found in plants, animals, fungi and some bacteria, alloworganisms to coordinate their biological activity with the day-night cycle. Although this rhythm is built-in, it is adjusted to the local environment using zeitgebers (time givers), external clues like temperature, light levels and so on.

By changing our sleeping patterns over a short period of time, we are causing our natural rhythm to become out of sync with the surrounding zeitgebers, which in effect is what jet lag is. This new study aimed to investigate this phenomenon in a non-invasive way, allowing the subjects to live their normal lives while the researchers unobtrusively monitored their sleep patterns.

Over the course of the research, 447 peoples sleep patterns were tracked using sleep monitors attached to their wrists, which estimated sleep time based on the movement or lack thereof of the participants. Their health status was also assessed, and several blood samples were taken throughout the study. In particular, the researchers were looking for changes inblood sugar and cholesterol levels.

As expected, participants’ sleep patterns changed over the weekend, with many of the subjects staying up later and sleeping for longer. Worryingly, the researchers found an apparent correlation between this shift in sleeping pattern and the appearance of markers of detrimental health effects. The more dramatic the weekend shift was, the more likely the subject was to show lower levels of good cholesterol and higher amounts of triglycerides (other fatty substances) in their blood precursors to heartdisease in the longterm.

Image credit: Sleeping in on the weekends may be messing up your internal clock. cosma/Shutterstock

Those with a more dramatic shift were alsothe most likely to experience weight gain and exhibit symptoms associates with the onset of diabetes. Although this study did not show that anyone developedheart disease or diabetes, it does imply that sleeping in and staying up far later on weekends, and then switching back to a normal weekday work pattern, may eventually have a negative effect on your health.

However, the study did have some limitations: In particular, the researchers did not explore whether participants with greater social jet lag had different circadian rhythms than those with less. This means that certain people’s own circadian rhythms may have been more suited to the weekend sleeping pattern, whereas others’ may have been more compatible with the weekday sleep schedule.

A similar study, albeit more invasive, was conducted in 2012 by Harvard University. In this instance, the subjects were locked in a laboratory for several weeks, and were only allowed 5.6 hours sleep a night on a 28-hour-long day. Without a doubt, the most significantdetrimental effect was to the subjects metabolism, their ability to convert nutrients into energy.

At the beginning of the study, all the participants were physically healthy; by the end of it, three were beginning to show signs of prediabetes, in that they had incredibly high sugar levels that the body was almost unable to reduce. The others were progressing rapidly towards this state.

Sleep disruption is already known to increase the likelihood of getting heartdisease, diabetes and obesity; this new study, along with others, implies that by snoozing in for longer on the weekend, we are effectively causing our own circadian misalignment and risking our health as a result.

Read more: http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/sleeping-weekends-may-give-you-social-jet-lag

Newly Discovered Enzyme Prevents Sugar Being Stored As Fat

Its January, and many of you are likely scrambling to pick a diet in an attempt to lose some of the post-Christmas weight gain. Your body’s conversion of all the excess sugar consumed into fat certainly didn’t help, but a team of researchers from the University of Montreal may have found a way to regulate this. As reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a new enzyme has been discovered that can directly control how your body converts sugar and fats.

Mammalian cells use both sugar (glucose) and fatty acids as their main sources of energy. Much of this glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen, a dense compound that can be mobilized whenever the body requires it for energy production. Those in developed countries tend to have diets that are too sugar-rich, giving themselves far more glucose than their body needs at the time. An excess of carbohydrates will also produce too much sugar for the body to be able to immediately use. Any large glucose excess is converted and stored as fat, and a major build up can lead to obesity.

Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreatic beta cells, causes the liver to convert glucose into glycogen. Those with type 2 diabetes do not produce enough insulin when required, or they produce ineffective insulin that isnt able to interact with the glucose in the blood, meaning glucose remains in the bloodstream.

Excess glucose in the blood also leads to the over-generation of a glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P) within cells. Normally, Gro3P participates in many cellular processes, including the formation of fats (lipids) andthe conversion of glucose into other useful compounds (glycolysis).

However, too much Gro3P is toxic to cells; tissues can be damaged, and the metabolic, glucose, and fat conversion processes are unable to operate properly. The derangement of these can lead to type 2 diabetes and even cardiovascular (heart) disease. Thus, excess glucose in the body is essentially toxic for a variety of reasons.

Cupcakes, of course, will input a fairly high amount of sugar into your bloodstream. Ruth Black/Shutterstock

As this new study details, an enzyme called Gro3P phosphatase, or G3PP, has been discovered, hiding within all types of body tissue. This enzyme appears to be able to regulate both the conversion of glucose and fats into other compounds, and the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s “energy currency.” This means that G3PP has direct influence over how glucose and fats are used within the body.

Using laboratory rats, the researchers showed that increasing the activity of G3PP within their livers ultimately lowers their weight gain and ability to produce glucose from the liver. Murthy Madiraju, a researcherat the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM), noted in a statement that G3PP prevents excessive formation and storage of fat and it also lowers excessive production of glucose in liver, a major problem in diabetes.

This offers a stepping stone for researchers hoping to manipulate this enzyme within humans. By using G3PP to alter how glucose and fats are absorbed and produced, those unable to control this themselves such as those suffering from type 2 diabetes could potentially be treated.

Photo Gallery

Read more: http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/newly-discovered-enzyme-prevents-sugar-being-stored-fat

Sugar is poison. My heart attack has finally opened my eyes to the truth | Giles Fraser: Loose canon

Loose canon: Globally, diabetes has almost quadrupled in 35 years and yet the multibillion-dollar sugar industry is happy to keep us in the dark about why

I am now a member of the zipper club. I know, I thought it sounded rude too. But apparently its the club name for those of us who have a scar right down the middleof our chest. I have one down my leg too, from groin to ankle. And as I spend time recovering from a heart bypass operation mostly doing very little, watching the cricket, reading the paper I have started to reflect on my condition. How did it come to this? How did the arteries of my heart become so clogged with gunk that I may have been just weeks from meeting my maker?

Diabetic, they said. Pah, I thought. I dont feel any different. Ijust get up to pee a bit more at night. Some biochemical medical problem just seemed a bit too elusive, abstract, distant. I mean, when Diane Abbott blamed a bad interview on diabetes, who really took that seriously? Earlier this year, I was sent on a diabetes awareness day and spent the time looking out of the window, bored. They tried to explain it to me but I wasnt concentrating.

Well, now that someone has sliced through my breastbone as they might a Christmas turkey, the whole thing doesnt seem quite so distant. And suddenly and unsurprisingly I am concentrating. All ears to, and pretty evangelical about, the evils of sugar. Sorry to have doubted you, Diane.

Back in September 2016, the Journal of the American Medical Association published papers, discovered deep in the Harvard University archives, that demonstrated how the sugar industry has been manipulating research into heart disease for years. These papers revealed that the purveyors of this white poison in behaviour straight out of the tobacco industry playbook had been paying Harvard scientists throughout the 1960sto emphasise the link between fatand heart disease and ignore the connection with sugar. Since then, Coca-Cola has funded research into the link between sugar and obesity. And the confectionery industry has paid for research which demonstrated that children who eat sweets are thinner than those who dont.

As I write, my son returns from the shops, perfectly on cue, laden with a chocolate bar, a full-fat Coke and a packet of lollipops. I want to tell him that Willy Wonka is a death-dealing drug dealer. But I bite my lip for now. He will think me a crank. Everything he likes has sugar in it. Thats my fault he got hooked on sugary breakfast cereals as a child. As Gary Taubes explained in his remarkable book The Case Against Sugar, published last year, it has assimilated itself into all aspects of our eating experience. Advertisements have normalised the omnipresence of sugar as a part of a balanced diet. And my sons brain has become accustomed to the dopamine it releases. He has become an addict. Most of us are addicts.

In 1996, 1.4 million people in the UK had diabetes. Since then the figure has trebled to over 4 million. Diabetes now gobbles up more than 10% of the NHS budget, with that percentage set to rise steeply in the coming years. The World Health Authority published a major report on global diabetes last year. Its figures show that the number of people with diabetes has gone up from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014. This is not just a matter of bad individual choices. You cant dismiss this as the aggregate of many millions of singular decisions, each one nothing more than a matter of weakness of will and responsible for itself alone. This has become a global epidemic.

For the last 30 years I have built a pretty effective protective shell against fat-shaming. I would probably have taken losing half a stone if offered, but I wasnt especially unhappy with my body shape. But now I see things differently. Now I see a multibillion-dollar industry that makes its profits by keeping us obese and in the dark about why. After my operation, I cut out sugar and carbohydrates as best I could. I have lost 10 kilograms in the five weeks since. And I plan to lose a lot more. Itsnot a diet I hate diets. Its a form ofprotest. The scales have fallen from my eyes. Beware the candy man.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2017/jul/13/sugar-is-poison-my-heart-attack-has-finally-opened-my-eyes-to-the-truth

Being overweight not just obese kills millions a year, say experts

Described as a growing and disturbing global health crisis, more than two billion adults and children suffer from weight-related health problems

Being overweight even without being obese is killing millions of people around the world, according to the most extensive and authoritative study of the global impact ever carried out.

More than two billion adults and children are suffering from health problems in the world because of their weight, says a team of 2,300 experts led by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IMHE), based at the University of Washington in Seattle.

In 2015, nearly four million people died from disease related to their weight, most commonly from heart disease. But only 60% were technically obese, which is defined as a body mass index over 30. The other 40%, or 1.6 million people, were overweight but not obese.

The authors of the paper, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, describe a growing and disturbing global public health crisis.

The study has figures for 195 countries, using data from 1980 to 2015. In the UK, nearly a quarter of the adult population 24.2% or 12 million people is considered obese. One million British children are obese amounting to 7.5% of all children in the UK.

The numbers for those who are overweight are much higher. Public Health England says that nearly two-thirds of the adult population 63% were overweight or obese in 2015. A fifth of children starting primary school aged four to five, and a third leaving it at age 10-11, are overweight or obese.

The studys experts say too many people assume that they will be fine unless they actually tip into obesity. Thats not so, says professor Azeem Majeed from Imperial College London, one of the studys authors.

The risk of death and diseases increases as your weight increases, he said. People who are overweight are at high risk of mortality and other diseases [beyond obesity itself].

Body mass index is the most common measure of obesity and is a ratio between weight and height. It is imperfect on an individual basis, because it does not allow for muscle as opposed to fat, but it can give an accurate assessment of population risk. BMI of 25 to 29 is considered to be overweight, while over 30 is obese.

People often assume you need to be really fat to be at risk, said Majeed. But once you hit a BMI of 25, your risk of diabetes, heart disease and cancer all begin to increase.

Obesity has doubled since 1980 in more than 70 countries and has steadily risen in most of the others. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries was greater than that of adults.

Among the 20 most populous countries, the highest level of obesity among children and young adults was in the United States, at nearly 13%. Adult obesity was highest in Egypt, at about 35%.

The lowest obesity rates were in Bangladesh and Vietnam, where they were just 1%. China, with 15.3 million, and India, with 14.4 million, had the highest numbers of obese children. The United States, with 79.4 million, and China, with 57.3 million, had the highest numbers of obese adults in 2015.

People who shrug off weight gain do so at their own risk risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and other life-threatening conditions, said Dr Christopher Murray, an author on the study and director of IMHE.

Those half-serious New Year resolutions to lose weight should become year-round commitments to lose weight and prevent future weight gain.

Dr Ashkan Afshin, the papers lead author and an assistant professor of global health at IHME, said: Excess body weight is one of the most challenging public health problems of our time, affecting nearly one in every three people.

The IHME is partnering with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) to exchange data on what is driving the epidemic.

Over the past decade, numerous interventions have been evaluated, but very little evidence exists about their long-term effectiveness, said Afshin. Over the next 10 years, we will closely with the FAO in monitoring and evaluating the progress of countries in controlling overweight and obesity. Moreover, we will share data and findings with scientists, policymakers, and other stakeholders seeking evidence-based strategies to address this problem.

The study shows being overweight or obese is linked to cancers of the oesophagus, colon, rectum, liver, gall bladder, biliary tract, pancreas, breast, womb, kidney, thyroid and leukaemia, as well as heart disease and stroke. It also notes that weight is an important factor behind years lost from disability caused by musculoskeletal disorders.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/jun/12/being-overweight-not-just-obese-kills-millions-a-year-say-experts

No such thing as ‘fat but fit’, major study finds

Metabolically healthy obese are 50% more likely to suffer heart disease than those of normal weight, finds University of Birmingham study

People who are obese run an increased risk of heart failure and stroke even if they appear healthy, without the obvious warning signs such as high blood pressure or diabetes, according to a major new study.

The findings, presented at the European Congress on Obesity in Porto, Portugal, may be the final death knell for the claim that it is possible to be obese but still metabolically healthy or fat but fit say scientists.

Several studies in the past have suggested that the idea of metabolically healthy obese individuals is an illusion, but they have been smaller than this one. The new study, from the University of Birmingham, involved 3.5 million people, approximately 61,000 of whom developed coronary heart disease.

The issue has been controversial. Obesity is usually measured by body mass index (BMI) a ratio of weight against height. It is generally agreed to be imperfect because athletes and very fit people with dense muscle can have the same BMI as somebody who is obese.

The scientists examined electronic health records from 1995 to 2015 in the Health Improvement Network a large UK general practice database. They found records for 3.5 million people who were free of coronary heart disease at the starting point of the study and divided them into groups according to their BMI and whether they had diabetes, high blood pressure [hypertension], and abnormal blood fats [hyperlipidemia], which are all classed as metabolic abnormalities. Anyone who had none of those was classed as metabolically healthy obese.

The study found that those obese individuals who appeared healthy in fact had a 50% higher risk of coronary heart disease than people who were of normal weight. They had a 7% increased risk of cerebrovascular disease problems affecting the blood supply to the brain which can cause a stroke, and double the risk of heart failure.

Dr Rishi Caleyachetty, who led the study, said it was true that weightlifters could be healthy and yet have a BMI that suggested they were obese. I understand that argument. BMI is crude but it is the only measure we have in the clinic to get a proxy for body fat. It is not realistic [to use anything else] in a GP setting or in the normal hospital clinic. We have to rely on BMI measurements, however crude they may be, he said.

While BMI results for particular individuals could be misleading, the study showed that on a population level, the idea that large numbers of people can be obese and yet metabolically healthy and at no risk of heart disease was wrong.

Caleyachetty said: The priority of health professionals should be to promote and facilitate weight loss among obese persons, regardless of the presence or absence of metabolic abnormalities.

At the population level, so-called metabolically healthy obesity is not a harmless condition and perhaps it is better not to use this term to describe an obese person, regardless of how many metabolic complications they have.

Last August a study from Sweden, which followed 1.3 million men over 30 years, found that those who were the fittest when they were 18 years old were 51% less likely to die prematurely than those who were the least fit. But if the men were obese, that cancelled out the advantage they had from their fitness in their youth.

Professor Peter Nordstrom, who led the study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology, said at the time: These results suggest low BMI early in life is more important than high physical fitness with regard to reducing the risk of early death.

Professor Timothy Gill from the Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders at the University of Sydney, Australia, said that there would always be some people who remain healthy in spite of obesity, just as there are some lifetime smokers who do not get lung cancer.

I think you can argue that there are still likely to be some people who are not going to suffer the ill-health consequences as much as other people just because of the distribution of risk, he said.

The World Obesity Federation has this month officially recognised obesity as a disease because of the wide variety of health problems associated with it.

Susannah Brown, senior scientist at World Cancer Research Fund, said the studys finding, emphasise the urgent need to take the obesity epidemic seriously.

As well as increasing your risk of cardiovascular disease, being overweight or obese can increase your risk of 11 common cancers, including prostate and liver. If everyone were a healthy weight, around 25,000 cases of cancer could be prevented in the UK each year.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/may/17/obesity-health-no-such-thing-as-fat-but-fit-major-study

Two-thirds of people in Mexico, Chile and Ecuador are obese, UN finds

Study calls epidemic frightening and finds that overnutrition and sedentary lifestyles are costing countries tens of billions of dollars every year

More than two-thirds of people living in Mexico, Chile and Ecuador are overweight or obese, costing their economies tens of billions of dollars every year, driving rates of disease and straining health services, according to a new UN report.

While the number of hungry people in Latin America and the Caribbean has halved in the past 25 years, the region is now struggling to combat an obesity epidemic.

Changing diets, including more processed food that are high in salt, sugar and fat, along with more sedentary lifestyles have triggered a rising tide of obesity, experts say.

The implications for the future of countries are frightening … undernutrition is declining, but overnutrition is expected to become the largest social and economic burden in the region, the UN World Food Programme (WFP) said in a statement.

The report by the WFP and the UNs Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), said over the next six decades people being overweight and obese would cost Mexico an estimated $13bn a year, Ecuador $3bn and Chile $1bn.

Undernutrition, when people do not get enough food, and obesity itself a form of malnutrition are two sides of the same coin, and together they inflict a so-called double burden of disease on people and economies, the report said.

Undernutrition impairs child growth and brain development, while obesity can led to type 2 diabetes, cancer and heart disease.

We now witness a worrying trend among vulnerable communities with cases of undernourishment and overweight simultaneously within the same families, said Miguel Barreto, WFPs regional director said in a statement.

Both undernourishment and overweight represent a serious burden for the health of those families, that eventually translates into losses in productivity, and in pressure on the health and education systems in the country where they live.

According to the World Health Organisation, obesity is an epidemic worldwide, killing 2.8 million adults every year, and obesity-related conditions now cause more deaths than hunger.

In Latin America, obesity is increasingly affecting the regions poor, particularly women.

In Mexico, a country that faces one of the worlds most acute obesity crisis, 74% of women are obese or overweight compared with 70% of men, the report said.

The report urged food companies to play a greater role in combating obesity.

The food industry has the opportunity to ensure the production, availability and accessibility of healthier food products, it said.

Governments should also do more to promote exercise and health eating and place greater controls on food labelling.

The report noted Chiles efforts to combat obesity, including an 18% tax on sugary drinks introduced in 2014 one of the worlds highest along with laws that restrict the advertising of unhealthy foods targeting children.

In 2014, Mexico also introduced a 10% tax on fizzy drinks, and 2016 research by the British Medical Journal found that the sugar tax led to as much as a 12% reduction in sales during the first year it was implemented.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/apr/25/obesity-epidemic-latin-america-mexico-chile-ecuador-un-report

Cardiology: Do You Know The Warning Signs of Heart Disease?

Edward Palank, M.D., talks about the risks and warning signs of heart disease.

Sleep Disorders and the Heart: What Do Cardiologists Need to Know?

In a video originally posted on www.theheart.org, Charanjit Rihal, M.D., chair of Mayo Clinic's Division of Cardiovascular Diseases; Virend Somers, M.D., Ph.D.; a Mayo Clinic physician-scientist who specializes in sleep apnea; and Andrew Calvin, M.D., a cardiovascular fellow, discuss sleep disorders, their diagnoses, and their impact on the cardiovascular system.